| 에드가 스노우(Edgar Parks Snow) 사진작가 (1905년 (미국) - 1975년 )|
1927 ~ 컬럼비아대학교
1925 ~ 1926 미주리대학교 1932~1941 런던 데일리 헤럴드 잡지 특파원
1934~1937 뉴욕 선 잡지 특파원
1934~1935 옌징대학 강사
1960 중국방문 중국 수뇌와 회견
1936 마오쩌둥과 회견
1928 상하이에 차이나 위클리 리뷰 부편집장
1927 캔자스시티 지방지 스타의 통신원
제2차 세계대전 중 종군기자
근대사 속에서 중국의 역사를 거증하는 <중국의 붉은 별>의 저자 에드거 스노우는 1905년 미국의 캔저스 시에서 태어났다. 1928년 동아시아로 출발하여 상해에 도착한 그는 이곳에서 신문기자가 되었으며, 그 후 13년간 아시아을 떠나지 않고 특히 중국대륙의 움직임을 중점적으로 보도했다. 그는 북경의 연경대학근처에 살면서 중국을 연구하고 중국어를 배웠으며 이 대학에서 강의했다. 그의 중국인 친구들 가운데는 이 때 그의 강의를 받았던, 그리고 오늘날에는 중국의 지도자가 된 사람들이 적지 않다.
중국,버마, 인도, 인도차이나에서 시카고 트리뷴, 뉴욕 선, 헤랄드 트리뷴,런던 데일리 헤랄드 순으로 이 신문사들의 특파원으로 활동한 그는 새터디 이브닝 포스트의 편집차장이 되어 아시아와 유럽의 사태들을 보도했다. 그는 또한 인도와 소련 문제 전문가이기도 해서 그의 보도와 저서는 광범위하게 인용되고 있다.
그의 저서는 Read Star over China 외에 The Battle for Asia, People on Our Side, Journey to the Beginning, Red China Today: The Other Side of the River, The Long Revolution 등 11권에 이르는 데 그 대표적인 저서는 역시 Read Star over China가 꼽힌다. <아리랑>의 저자 Nym Wales는 그의 부인이었다. 194ㅇ년 초 이혼하고 헐리우드 여배우와 재혼했다. 에드가 스노우는 1972년 사망했다.
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Edgar Snow (left) with Zhou Enlai and his wife Deng Yingchao approx. 1938.
Half of Edgar Snow's remains are buried on the campus of Peking University, Beijing, alongside Weiming Lake.Edgar Snow (17 July 1905 in Kansas City, Missouri – 15 February 1972 in Geneva) was an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution. He is believed to be the first Western journalist to interview Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong, and is best known for Red Star Over China (1937) an account of the Chinese Communist movement from its foundation until the late 1930s.
1.1 Writing 'Red Star Over China'
1.2 Later Journalism
1.3 Return to China
2 Recent Evaluations
4 Further reading
6 External links
Snow studied journalism at the University of Missouri, where he joined the Zeta Phi chapter of Beta Theta Pi, but moved to New York City before graduating. He made some money in the stock market and sold out before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Wanting to use the money he embarked on an around the world tour in 1928, but never made it past Shanghai. He stayed in China until 1941.
He quickly found work with the China Weekly Review, edited by J.B. Powell, a fellow graduate of the Missouri School of Journalism. In his early years he was an enthusiast for Chiang Kai-shek, noting that he had more Harvard graduates in his cabinet than there were in Franklin Roosevelt's. In 1932 he married Helen Foster Snow, who was working in the American Consulate until she could begin her own career in journalism. In 1933, after a honeymoon in Japan, the couple moved to Beiping, as Beijing was called at that point. He prepared his book Far Eastern Front, filed occasional articles for American outlets, and taught journalism part-time at Yenching University. They borrowed works on current affairs from the Yenching library and read classics of Marxism. The couple became acquainted with student leaders of the anti-Japanese December 9th Movement. Through their contacts with the underground communist network, Snow was invited to visit Mao Zedong's headquarters. 
 Writing 'Red Star Over China'
In June 1936, Snow and his friend George Hatem, whose presence was kept secret, went to Xi'an and from there were taken through the military quarantine lines to Bao'an, where he spent nearly three months. Snow had been preparing to write a book on the Communist movement in China for several years, and had even signed a contract at one point. However, his most important contribution was the interviews he conducted with the top leaders of the party. After he returned to Beijing in the fall, he wrote frantically. First he published a short account in China Weekly Review, then a series of publications in Chinese. Red Star Over China, published first in London in 1937, was given credit for introducing both Chinese and foreign readers not so much to the Communist Party, which was reasonably well known, but to Mao Zedong. Mao was not, as had been reported, dead, and Snow reported that Mao was a political reformer, not the purely military or radical revolutionary he had been during the 1920s. After the outbreak of war in 1937, the Snows were founding members of the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. Edgar again visited Mao in Yan'an in 1939.
 Later Journalism
Snow and his wife returned to the United States in 1941, but they soon parted, and divorced after the war. In April 1942 the Saturday Evening Post sent him abroad as a war correspondent. Snow traveled to India, China and Russia to report on World War II from the perspective of those countries. In Russia he shared his observations on the Battle of Stalingrad with the American Embassy. At times, Snow's defense of various undemocratic Allied governments took on the character of blatant war propaganda, not neutral journalistic observation, but Snow defended his reporting, stating
in this international cataclysm brought on by fascists it is no more possible for any people to remain neutral than it is for a man surrounded by bubonic plague to remain “neutral” toward the rat population. Whether you like it or not, your life as a force is bound either to help the rats or hinder them. Nobody can be immunized against the germs of history.
By 1944, Snow was wavering on the question of whether Mao and the Chinese Communists were actually "agrarian democrats", not dedicated Communists bent on totalitarian rule, a view encouraged by Mao and his party leadership. His 1944 book People On Our Side emphasized their role in the fight against fascism. In a speech, he described Mao and the Communist Chinese as a progressive force who desired a democratic, free China, not a communist one-party state. Writing for the The Nation, Snow stated that the Chinese communists "happen to have renounced, years ago now, any intention of establishing communism [in China] in the near future." After the war, Snow would retreat from this view of the Chinese communists as a democratic movement.
Because of his prior relationships with communists and his highly favorable treatment of them as a war correspondent, Snow became an object of suspicion following World War II. During the McCarthy period, he was questioned by the FBI and asked to disclose the extent of his Communist activities. In published articles, Snow lamented what he saw as the one-sided, conservative, and anti-communist mood of the United States. Later in the 1950s, he published two more books about China: Random Notes on Red China (1957), a research aid for scholars containing previously unused China material; and Journey to the Beginning (1958), an autobiographical account of events prior to 1949. However, Snow found it increasingly difficult to make a living through his writing, and he decided to leave the United States in the 1950s. He moved with his second wife, Louis Wheeler Snow, to Switzerland, but retained his American citizenship.
 Return to China
He returned to China in 1960 and 1964 and interviewed Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, as well as travelling extensively and talking to people. His 1963 book The Other Side of the River details this, including his reasons for denying that China's 1959-1961 crisis was actually a famine.
In 1970, he made a final trip to China and was told that President Richard Nixon would be welcome to visit either officially or as a private citizen. The White House followed this visit with interest but distrusted Snow and his pro-communist reputation.  When Snow came down with pancreatic cancer, Zhou Enlai dispatched a team of Chinese doctors to Switzerland, including George Hatem. Snow died on February 15, 1972, the week President Nixon was traveling to China, and did not live to see the normalization of relations. 
After his death, his ashes were divided into two parts, one of which was buried near the Hudson River and the other scattered at Peking University, which had taken over the campus of Yenching University, where he had taught in the 1930s.
 Recent Evaluations
Snow's reporting from China in the 1930s was both praised as prescient and blamed for the rise of Mao's communism. His biographers present him as an important link between China and the United States, but in Jung Chang and Jon Halliday's controversial recent biography of Mao, Mao: The Unknown Story, Chang and Halliday refers to the "myths" supplied by Snow as Mao's "spokesman," implying that he lost his objectivity to present a romanticized and partial view.  Simon Leys thinks not highly of Edgar Snow's Chinese. But, a more sympathetic writer concluded that what he did in the 1930s was "to describe the Chinese Communists before anyone else, and thus score a world-class scoop." Of his reporting in 1960, however, he says that Snow "contented himself with assurances from Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong that while there was a food problem, it was being dealt with successfully," which was not true, and "had Snow still been the reporter he had been in the 1930s he would have discovered it." 
Living China: Modern Chinese Short Stories
Red Star Over China (various editions, London, New York, 1937-1944). Reprinted Read Books, 2006, ISBN 978-1406798210; Hesperides Press, 2008, ISBN 978-1443736732.
The Battle for Asia
Far Eastern Front
People On Our Side. Random House, 1944.
Stalin Must Have Peace. Random House, 1947.
China, Russia, and the USA
Red China Today: The Other Side of the River. Gollancz, 1963. New edition, Penguin Books, 1970. ISBN 0140211594.
The Long Revolution
 Further reading
French, Paul. Through the Looking Glass: Foreign Journalists in China, from the Opium Wars to Mao. Hong Kong University Press, 2009.
Hamilton, John Maxwell. Edgar Snow: A Biography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
Mirsky, Jonathan. "Message from Mao", New York Review (February 16 1985): 15-17. Review.
Shewmaker, Kenneth E., Americans and Chinese Communists, 1927-1945: A Persuading Encounter, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press (1971) ISBN 080140617X
Snow, Edgar. Journey to the Beginning. New York: Random House, 1958. Memoir.
Thomas, S. Bernard. Season of High Adventure: Edgar Snow in China, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
^ Thomas, Season of High Adventure, 107-125.
^ Hamilton, John M., Edgar Snow: A Biography, LSU Press, (2003) ISBN 0807129127, 9780807129128, p. 229.
^ a b c Hamilton, John M., Edgar Snow: A Biography, LSU Press, (2003) ISBN 0807129127, 9780807129128, p. 167
^ Shewmaker, Kenneth E., Americans and Chinese Communists, 1927-1945: A Persuading Encounter, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press (1971) ISBN 080140617X
^ Tyler, Patrick (2000). A Great Wall: Six Presidents and China: An Investigative History. New York: Public Affairs. p. 81-86.
^ Thomas, Season of High Adventure pp. 335-6.
^ Chang, Jung and Halliday, Jon, Mao: The Unknown Story, Jonathan Cape, London (2005), ISBN 0224071262, p. 106
^ Jonathan Mirsky, "Message from Mao," New York Review (February 16, 1985).
 External links
Edgar Snow Archives at the University of Missouri in Kansas City
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Snow"